The scientists carried out a study to identify liars in business, analyzing the data mainly men, as in business they represent the majority.
The study involved 168 students from Madrid. The subjects were divided into pairs and asked to play the classic prisoner's dilemma from game theory. One of the participants could tell an untruth to his partner about the amount of money or give him truthful information, but lose the money.
Researchers took into account morphometric masculinity, the ratio of height to width of the face, and the ratio of length of the ring finger to the index finger. Researchers identified three main features in the appearance of men, which can be used to identify pathological liars. It turned out that men with masculine appearance, wide face and those with ring fingers shorter than index fingers lied to their partners more often than others.